A Wide Area Network (WAN) links geographically dispersed locations to other networks or the Internet. A WAN configuration can include switched and permanent telephone circuits, terrestrial radio systems and satellite systems. Also: a group of networked computers in a large geographical area. The best example of a WAN is the Internet.
WAN IP Pass-Through
WAN IP Pass-Through allows a WAN computer on the local network of the device to support web services using the public IP address of the device. When WAN IP Pass-Through is configured, all traffic is forwarded to the computer and will not go through NAT, so this is a good feature for NAT-unfriendly application services on your LAN.
Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) is optical frequency division multiplexing (FDM). Each subchannel on the fiber-optic network is carried by a different color of light.
WDR (Wide Dynamic Range)
The Wide Dynamic Range (WDR) function of a camera is intended to provide clear images even under back light circumstances where intensity of illumination can vary excessively, namely when there are both very bright and very dark areas simultaneously in the field of view of the camera. WDR enables the capture and display of both bright areas and dark areas in the same frame, in a way that there are details in both areas, i.e. bright areas are not saturated, and dark areas are not too dark.
A Distribution System (DS) is a wired connection between two or more APs, while a WDS is a wireless connection. An AP using WDS can function as a wireless network bridge allowing you to wirelessly connect two wired network segments.
WDS security is the use of authentication and encryption techniques on a Wireless Distribution System (WDS) link between compatible access points. WDS security may be distinct from the security set up on the links between wireless clients and access points, and is likely to be configured separately.
The web feed data format is used to provide frequently updated content to users. The distributor of the content publishes a link to the feed. Users add the link to an aggregator program (feed reader) in order to subscribe to the feed. See also podcasting.
Weighted Round Robin Algorithm
The weighted round robin algorithm is similar to the round robin algorithm in that it provides resources to each element in turn. WRR also assigns a weight to each element. An element with a larger weight gets more of the resources than an element with a smaller weight. See also Round Robin Algorithm.
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) encrypts data transmitted between wired and wireless networks to keep the transmission private. Although one of the original wireless encryption protocols, WEP, is also the weakest. WEP is a security protocol for wireless networks. WEP aims to provide security by encrypting data over radio waves so that it is protected during transmission. A shared key (similar to a password) is used to allow communication between the computers and the router. WEP offers a basic, but satisfactory level of security for wireless data transmission.
Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) services queues based on their priority and queue weight. Queues with larger weights get more service than queues with smaller weights. This queuing mechanism is highly efficient in that it divides any available bandwidth across the different traffic queues. See also Queuing Algorithms.
Weighted Fair Scheduling (WFS) is used to guarantee each queue’s minimum bandwidth based on its bandwidth weight (portion) when there is traffic congestion. WFS is activated only when a port has more traffic than it can handle. Queues with larger weights get more bandwidth than queues with smaller weights. Bandwidth is divided across the different traffic queues according to their weights.
WiBro (Wireless Broadband) is a South Korean alternative to WiMAX, mainly developed by Samsung and ETRI (the Korean Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute).
WiMAX (Wireless Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a set of radio-based networking standards primarily presented as an alternative to cable or DSL for last-mile Internet access. The term refers to the IEEE 802.16d-2004 and 802.16e-2005 standards. WiMAX subscriber stations (clients) connect to base stations, which may also interconnect. WiMAX has a greater range than other current wireless technologies, suiting it to large-scale applications such as wireless metropolitan area networks. It can also be used to connect remote communities to the Internet.
WiMAX technology uses low-frequency radio signals (around 2 to 10GHz) to connect subscriber stations to local base stations, and powerful high-frequency directional microwave (around 11 to 66GHz) to link between base stations. WiMAX is typically used in wireless metropolitan area networks (MANs).
The industry group dedicated to promoting and certifying interoperability of IEEE 802.16 wireless broadband products.
WiMAX and Authentication Keys
Once a mobile station’s public key has been verified by the base station, the base station sends an authentication key (AK) to the mobile station. The AK allows the mobile station to authenticate the base station in order to verify that it is legitimate, and not a rogue base station.
WiMAX Backhaul Connection
In WiMAX, a backhaul connection is an outside connection to another network or the Internet. A base station uses its backhaul port to connect to the ASN (Access Service Network), the CSN (Connectivity Service Network) and then the Internet.
WiMAX and CCMP
The Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code (CCMP) protocol is a cryptographic algorithm employed to encrypt all data on the WiMAX network.
In WiMAX, the downlink means the direction from the base station to a mobile station.
WiMAX initialization (or network entry) is the procedure that mobile stations have to take to join a WiMAX network.
WiMAX MAC Layer
WiMAX manages the physical and data link layers of the OSI model. The Media Access Control (MAC) layer is the second layer in the WiMAX network. The MAC layer controls media access, bandwidth requests and allocation, connection establishing and maintenance.
Windows Mobile is a version of the Microsoft Windows operating system for use on mobile devices, like cellphones and pocket PCs. The OS features cut-down versions of standard Windows software, such as Windows Media Player and Pocket MSN.
WiMAX PHY Layer
In WiMAX, the PHY layer is the first layer and also called the physical layer. The PHY layer receives frames from another device and forwards them to the MAC layer and vice versa. The PHY layer controls the frequencies, modulation, synchronizations, speeds.
WiMAX Pico Base Station
Macro and micro WiMAX base stations provide very large coverage areas, whereas pico base stations are deployed to enhance coverage for WiMAX subscribers, by filling in coverage dead spots caused by the positioning pattern of micro and macro base stations
WiMAX and PMKs
In WiMAX, pairwise master keys (PMKs) are secret symmetric keys generated by the mobile station and the base station (or the ASN gateway), derived from existing keys.
WiMAX and Public Keys
In a WiMAX network, mobile stations present a public key to the base station in the initial stage of a security association. This allows the base station to verify the mobile station’s identity. The public key is contained in an X.509 digital certificate (along with the mobile station’s MAC address).
WiMAX R6 is an interface used for interoperability between base stations and ASN gateways. It can be a wired or wireless connection. R6 allows base stations to connect to one or two (at most) ASN gateways at the same time.
In WiMAX security, the connection between a base station and its associated mobile stations is encrypted to protect data passing over the air link. Keys modify the cryptographic algorithm used to encrypt the data stream, ensuring that only another device possessing the same key can decrypt it. Key cryptography can be used either to encipher the data stream (encryption), or to prove that a message originates from a specific person or device (authentication).
WiMAX Service Flow
Similar to a TCP/IP session, a service flow is a unidirectional flow of frames and is identified by a service flow identifier (SFID).
In WiMAX, the uplink means the direction from a mobile station to the base station.
Windows 98 and Me utility that displays the IP address for a particular networking device.
Microsoft WINS is a mapping of NetBIOS computer names to IP addresses. The mappings are dynamically updated (for example, when a computer starts up). See also DNS, NetBIOS name.
Connecting to a network and monitoring all traffic. Most wire tapping features can only monitor the traffic on their subnet.
A wireless bridge establishes wireless links with other APs to connect independent wired networks. See also WDS.
A wireless station or wireless client is any wireless-capable device that can connect to an AP using a wireless signal.
Wireless Client Supplicants
A wireless client supplicant is the software that runs on an operating system instructing the wireless client how to use WPA.
A wireless MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) is a large-scale network where subscriber stations and mobile stations communicate wirelessly with base stations. Subscriber stations are static, while mobile stations are capable of moving freely between coverage areas of base stations. Base stations are linked to one another across even greater distances by wired or microwave wireless connections.
Wireless Network Camera
This is a Web camera and surveillance device that includes audio capture, motion detection, and automatic wireless connection.
A wireless repeater relays traffic from one AP to another AP.
A wireless station or wireless client is any wireless-capable device that can connect to an AP using a wireless signal.
Wireless Internet Service Providers (WISP) are Wi-Fi hotspots or providers that use a Wi-Fi based network to provide Internet access. See also WISPr.
The Wi-Fi Alliance chartered Wireless Internet Service Provider roaming (WISPr) to recommend a framework for allowing subscribers to roam between Wi-Fi based Wireless Internet Service Providers (WISPs). Users can connect through various WISP networks and still be authenticated and billed by their own service provider or company. See also iPass.
WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) is a shared communication system through which many computers can communicate wirelessly.
WMA (Windows Media Audio) is Microsoft’s audio compression format.
The Microsoft Windows Media Digital Rights Management (also called WMDRM or Windows Media DRM) service is designed to protect and securely deliver digital audio and video content over an IP network. A license server uses client-specific information to generate a license. The client device then retrieves and uses the license to decrypt and play the protected contents.
WMDRM for Portable Devices supports offline playback of the digital contents on portable devices. A license is obatined from the license server via a storage device and transferred to the portable playback device. See also WMDRM.
Wi-Fi MultiMedia (WMM) is a part of the IEEE 802.11e QoS enhancement to the Wi-Fi standard that ensures quality of service for multimedia applications in wireless networks.
WMM Automatic Power Save Delivery (APSD) has an AP manage radio usage to help increase battery life for battery-powered wireless clients. APSD uses a longer beacon interval when transmitting traffic that does not require a short packet exchange interval.
A workgroup is a group of computers on a network that can share files. See also Domain.
A Wireless Projector Adapter (WPA) is a device that connects computers to a projector wirelessly.
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is a subset of the IEEE 802.11i standard. It improves data encryption by using Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP), Message Integrity Check (MIC) and IEEE 802.1x. WPA uses Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) in the Counter mode with Cipher block chaining Message authentication code Protocol (CCMP) to offer stronger encryption than TKIP. WPA applies IEEE 802.1x and Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) to authenticate wireless clients using an external RADIUS database. The WPA protocol affords users with vastly stronger security than the WEP protocol. It comes in two different varieties: WPA and WPA2. Always try to use WPA2 as it implements the full version of the security standard while WPA does not.
WPA2 (IEEE 802.11i) is a wireless security standard that defines stronger encryption, authentication and key management than WPA. It includes two data encryption algorithms, Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) and Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) in the Counter mode with Cipher block chaining Message authentication Code Protocol (CCMP). WPA2 reduces the number of key exchange messages from six to four (CCMP 4-way handshake) and shortens the time required to connect to a network. Other WPA2 authentication features that are different from WPA include key caching and pre-authentication. These two features are optional and may not be implemented in all wireless devices. See also WPA
WPA USB PnS (Plug and Show)
A WPA USB PnS (Plug and Show) token is a USB storage device (such as a USB memory stick) containing WPA utility files. Use a USB PnS token when you don’t want to install the WPA utility on a computer but you want to use the projector via the WPA from it.
Similar to static WEP encryption, WPA-None uses a static pre-shared key to encrypt data transmitted between the wireless devices (in Ad-hoc mode), and there is no authentication involved (unlike WPA-PSK). But WPA-None provides stronger encryption than static WEP by using either TKIP or AES. See WEP and WPA-PSK.
WPA-PSK (WPA -Pre-Shared Key) requires a single (identical) password entered into each access point, wireless gateway and wireless client. As long as the passwords match, a client will be granted access to a WLAN. See also WPA.
WPA-Personal: Also referred to as WPA-PSK (Pre-shared key) mode. Is designed for home and small office networks and doesn’t require an authentication server. Each wireless network device authenticates with the access point using the same 256-bit key.
WPA-Enterprise: Also referred to as WPA-802.1x mode, and sometimes just WPA (as opposed to WPA-PSK). Is designed for enterprise networks, and requires a RADIUS authentication server. This requires a more complicated setup, but provides additional security (e.g. protection against dictionary attacks). An Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) is used for authentication, which comes in different flavors (for example EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS, EAP-SIM).
Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS) is a security protocol that lets two or more devices connect securely to one another with a minimum amount of hassle on your part. It most cases, establishing a secure connection with another WPS device is as easy as pushing a button.
WPS External Registrar
Some APs support having an external WPS registrar (such as an Intel station) give wireless settings to the AP or wireless clients and authenticate wireless clients.
The Internet in general.
WXGA (Wide XGA) describes widescreen 16:9 aspect ratio resolutions used by home cinema projectors, screens and high definition TVs.